Yes, authentication and legalization stamps together are the equivalent to an Apostille Certificate as they both validate documents for international use. Countries that have signed the Hague Apostille Convention agreement issue an Apostille Certificate while those countries who have not signed require authentication and legalization stamps.
In Canada, authentication stamps are issued by Global Affairs Canada located in Ottawa close to our head office. After verifying the official signature on your document, the authenticating officer will sign their name and apply the Government of Canada authentication stamp. Then the document is ready for the legalization stamp at the embassy to become legally valid in the destination country. At this stage, the embassy or consulate will verify Global Affairs Canada's signature and stamp to verify all is correct. If correct, they will apply their legalization stamp and a registration number depending on the country. Now that the document has been authenticated and legalized it is ready to be used legally in any foreign country.